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                                             held responsible for its safe disposal.   not just have to rely on material
                                             The polluter pays principle is part of   sustainability – the ethical impact
                                             a set of broader principles to guide   can extend to their workers as well.
                                             sustainable development worldwide   By utilizing sustainable processes
                                             (formally known as the 1992 Rio   and materials, manufacturers ensure
                                             Declaration).  However, is it really   that local ecosystems are affected
                                             possible to determine the cost of an   in the minimum possible manner.
                                             ocean polluted with oil spills or the   Sustainably sourced materials
                                             extinction of an entire species due to   may include recycled goods or
                                             chemical pesticides?           items sourced from another local
                                                                            manufacturer. This reduces waste and
                                             The answer to the aforementioned   limits transport needs, which can have
                                             question would be ‘No’. Even if   a negative environmental impact.
                                             industrial producers adhere to
                                             the ‘polluter pays’ principle, they   Some toilet paper companies plant
                                             would do better by following ethical   trees to replace the ones used for
                                             manufacturing processes.       their production. One of the leading
                                                                            manufacturers Procter & Gamble
                                             What Is Ethical                (P&G) Co. plants a tree for each one
                                                                            that is felled by them. It also pays to
                                             Manufacturing?                 protect trees in other parts of the
                                                                            world as a way of offsetting some of
                                             Ethical manufacturing is a holistic   its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
                                             approach to the manufacturing   P&G further states, “Every decision
                                             process that focuses on good health   we make is guided by what is best for
                                             for all involved. This means that a   consumers and the environment.
             manufacturers is how to achieve   product’s design, creation, and use   P&G has committed to using recycled
             an ethical status while improving   can maintain sustainable standards.   fibres where it can have the most
             their business processes. In such a   As a result, the products and the   benefit for our consumers.” 2
             scenario, wouldn’t it be justified and   processes of making these have a
             equitable to follow the ‘Polluter Pays’   positive impact on communities.
             Principle?                      Businesses must create inclusive   What Is Extended
                                             environments that promote      Producer
             What is the                     sustainable production while   Responsibility?
             ‘Polluter Pays’                 benefiting the local community.   The concept of Extended Producer
                                             An ethical manufacturer has a
             Principle?                      broadened vision and cares for   Responsibility (EPR) is that the
                                             every section of their business and   responsibility of the producer
             In simple terms, the ‘polluter   their own supply chain, prioritizing   of a product is extended beyond
             pays’ principle states, ‘Those who   the well-being of their customers,   conventional sales to its post-
             pollute should pay for the cost of   staff as well as the environment.   consumer or End-Of-Life (EOL)
             the pollution they create.’ It is the   Ethical production may include   stage. This means that the producer
             commonly accepted practice that   material and energy use. Ethical   is responsible for collection of
             those who cause pollution should   manufacturing businesses do   the used products or packaging
             bear the costs of managing it to
             prevent damage to human health
             or the environment. For example, a   1   The London School of Economics and   2    Porter Jr, Gerald. 2020. ‘You May Be
                                                                              Cleaning Up in the Bathroom Using an Old-
             factory that produces a potentially   Political Science. 2018. What is the polluter   Growth Tree.’ In Bloomberg Green. Details
                                              pays principle? Details available at https://
             poisonous substance as a  available at
             byproduct of its activities is usually   explainers/what-is-the-polluter-pays-  news/articles/2020-09-17/how-green-is-
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