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             The handling processes at the end of   increase performance requirements   Graham, P. 2019. “Adopting
             a building’s lifespan have multiple   while maintaining the viability of the   Decarbonization Policies in the Buildings
             options as well. The building may   policy (Graham 2019).      & Construction Sector: Costs and
                                                                            Benefits.” In
             be demolished as an entity or
             consciously dismantled for reuse or   It must be noted that the calculation   IEA. 2020. “Data & Statistics
             recycling. While metals, wood, glass,   of the required offset, with no regard   – IEA.” Details available at
             and plastics may be extracted for   to the costs it comes at would be a   statistics?country=INDIA&fuel=CO2
             reuse and recycling, debris consisting   study in isolation. This incremental   emissions&indicator=FECI
                                             cost for carbon offsetting also
             of concrete, bricks, and tiles are   needs to be put in perspective to   Lucon O., D. Ürge-Vorsatz, A. Zain
             typically landfilled. Only a handful   the actual cost of the building. For   Ahmed, H. Akbari, P. Bertoldi, L.F.
             of cities in India, like Ahmedabad,   instance, a study conducted by the   Cabeza, N. Eyre, A. Gadgil, L.D.D. Harvey,
             have a construction and demolition   UK Green Building Council in early   Y. Jiang, E. Liphoto, S. Mirasgedis, S.
             (C&D) waste recycling facility. The   2020 explores the replacement of   Murakami, J. Parikh, C. Pyke, and M.V.
             emissions generated due to the use of   material to compensate for embodied   Vilariño. 2014. Buildings. In Climate
                                                                            Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate
             such a facility are rarely included in   and operational carbon. The cost   Change. Contribution of Working Group
             the environmental impact assessment   analysis reports that the incremental   III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the
             (EIA) of the building. However, a   cost for an office building was only   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
             cradle-to-cradle analysis necessitates   6%. These costs were reported to   [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga,
             the inclusion of these emissions.   be relatively marginal and expected   Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K.
                                                                            Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P.
                                             to be recouped through associated   Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S.
             The recent LCA studies in India have                           Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and
             dealt with the handloom industry,   increases in rental and capital value   J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge: Cambridge
                                             (UK GBC 2020).
             waste management options, rooftop                              University Press
             solar PV systems, and so on. LCA   Life cycle analysis and carbon   Parkin, A., M. Herrera, and D. A. Coley.
             studies for buildings have been   quantification can simplify the road to   2020. Net zero buildings: when carbon
             sparse and mostly based on foreign   net zero carbon. Considering our rate   and energy metrics diverge. Buildings
             data sources. This is because LCA   of emissions, absolute zero carbon   and Cities 1(1):86–99. Details available at
             is both data-intensive and      should be the ideal target. However,
             data-sensitive. A methodology for   with current building technologies,   Schmidt, M., R. H. Crawford, and G.
             carbon quantification is in place. It   achieving that seems impossible.   Warren-myers. 2020. Integrating life
             is only a matter of finding and using   In our existing situation, net zero   cycle GHG emissions into a building’s
             the right data sets. The quantification   carbon needs to be the intermediary   economic evaluation. Buildings and Cities
             of carbon leads to the possibility of   target. This target will also open up
             compensation through carbon offsets.   explorations on circularity in design   UK GBC. 2020. Building the Case for
                                                                            Net Zero: A Feasibility Study into the
                                             and alternative materials.     Design, Delivery and Cost of New Net Zero
             While offsetting carbon is                                     Carbon Buildings. Details available at
             environmentally crucial, it is                       
             important to understand the     References                     uploads/2020/09/Building-the-Case-for-
             economic cost it entails. This is   Adams, M., V. Burrows, and   Net-Zero_UKGBC.pdf.
             because the cost and benefits of   S. Richardson. 2019. Bringing Embodied   UNEP. 2020. 2020 Global Status Report
             an absolute zero carbon building   Carbon Upfront: Coordinated Action for   for Buildings and Construction: Towards
             accrue to different stakeholders   the Building and Construction Sector   a Zero-Emissions, Efficient and Resilient
             during different phases of the   to Tackle Embodied Carbon. Bringing   Buildings and Construction Sector.
                                             Embodied Carbon Upfront (35). Details
             building’s lifespan. Many of these   available at  Renewables Global Status Report. Details
                                                                            available at
             financial benefits do not go to the   sites/default/files/WorldGBC_Bringing_  resources/publications/
             developers and constructors, but to   Embodied_Carbon_Upfront.pdf.
             the occupants, thereby creating a   Bordass, B. 2020. Metrics for energy   Ürge-Vorsatz, D., R. Khosla, R. Bernhardt,
                                                                            Y. C. Chan, D. Vérez, S. Hu, and L. F.
             split incentive. Consequently, a high   performance in operation: the fallacy   Cabeza. 2020. Advances toward a Global
             upfront cost is one of the biggest   of single indicators. Buildings and Cities   Net Zero Building Sector. Annual Review
             roadblocks for policymakers trying to   1(1):260–276. Details available at https://  of Environment and Resources 45: (in print)
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